zaeto.ru

Название эумкд профессиональный иностранный язык

Другое
Экономика
Финансы
Маркетинг
Астрономия
География
Туризм
Биология
История
Информатика
Культура
Математика
Физика
Философия
Химия
Банк
Право
Военное дело
Бухгалтерия
Журналистика
Спорт
Психология
Литература
Музыка
Медицина
добавить свой файл
 

 
страница 1 страница 2 страница 3 страница 4 страница 5




&&&

###002-012#2.12 Календарный график учебного процесса и дистанционных консультаций

Календарный график учебного процесса и дистанционных консультаций

по дисциплине «___________________________»

Таблица 5



№ п/п

Недели

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Итого

1-рейтинг

1

Вид контроля










ЗМ1







ЗМ2

РК1

300

баллов

2

Баллы










150







120

30

3

Консультации

OF

OL

OL

OF

OF

OL

OF

OF

№ п/п

Недели

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

Итого

2-рейтинг




1

Вид контроля







ОС







ЗМ3

РК2

300

баллов


2

Баллы







120







150

30

3

Консультации

OL

OL

OF

OF

OL

OF

OF

Обозначения: ЗМ-задание по модулю; ОС-он-лайн семинар; РК-рубежный контроль; OL- он-лайн консультация; OF- офф-лайн консультация

&&&

$$$002-000-000$3.2 Лекции

&&&
Не предусмотрено по учебному плану.

&&&

$$$003-000-000$3.3 Практические занятия
&&&

$$$003-001-000$3.3.1 Практическое занятие №1

{Тема, план занятия}



The Science of Ecology

Ecology is the study of the «homes» of animals and plants. Ecologists are interested in where animals and plants live and how they interact with each other. They answer such questions as «What would happen to all the oak trees in a forest if the climate becomes drier?» and «Will there be more greenflies on a tree if the ladybirds are all destroyed by a disease?* Today many people are worried about «Global Warming*. They try to predict what will happen to the world, and its animals and plants, if the average temperature of the world goes up. The relationship between man and nature has become one of the major problems facing civilization today. Ecology, a vital philosophical issue, stands at the crossroads of politics, science and economics.

The word «ecology» comes from the Greek words oiki^ (oikos, «household») and Xo'yoC, (logos, «study»); therefore «ecology» means the «study of the household [of nature]*.

The word «ecology» is often used as a synonym for the natural environment or environmentalism. Likewise «ecologic» or «ecological» is often taken in the sense of environmentally friendly. The Greek philosopher Theophrastus was one of the first people to discuss the relationship between living things and their environments. German zoologist Ernst Haeckel coined the term oikologie, defined as the relationship of an animal to both its organic and inorganic environment, particularly those plants and animals with which it comes in contact.

Until the early 20th Century, biologists concentrated on descriptive studies of plants and animals. Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, for example, developed from his observations while recording the natural history of plants and animals. As human civilization subdued nature, people stopped perceiving it as the enemy. The near extinction of common species like the beaver led to the beginning of the conservation movement. By the 1930s, nature study became part of the curriculum of most schools, but organisms were still viewed in isolation rather than as communities.

Human development degraded the environment because people did not understand their relationship with it; that we have as much impact on our surroundings as they do on us.

No single individual did more to change this than Rachel Carson. Her book, "Silent Spring» (1962), warned how the abuse of chemicals was destroying wildlife while also harming the human environment. This raised massive public interest in nature. By the 1970s ecology, formerly an obscure science became a household word.

The modern definition of ecology is:

The scientific discipline, that is concerned with the relationship between organisms and their past, present and future environments, both living and non-living. Science, of course, represents a body of knowledge about the world and all its parts. It is also a method for finding new information.

Thus Ecology, or ecological science, is the scientific study of the distribution and abundance of living organisms and how the distribution and abundance are affected by interactions between the organisms and their environment. The word environment refers to everything around us: the air, the water and the land as well as the plants, animals, and microorganisms that inhabit them. The environment of an organism includes both physical properties, which can be described as the sum of local abiotic factors such as solar insolation, climate and geology, as well as the other organisms that share its habitat.

Scope

Ecology is usually considered a branch of biology, the general science that studies living organisms. Organisms can be studied at many different levels, from proteins and nucleic acids (in biochemistry and molecular biology), to cells (in cellular biology), to individuals (in botany, zoology, and other similar disciplines), and finally at the level of populations, communities, and ecosystems, to the biosphere as a whole; these latter strata are the primary subjects of ecological inquiries. Ecology is a multi-disciplinary science. Because of its focus on the higher levels of the organization of life on earth and on the interrelations between organisms and their environment, ecology draws heavily on many other branches of science, especially geology and geography, meteorology, pedology, chemistry, and physics. Thus, ecology is considered by some to be a holistic science, one that over-arches older disciplines such as biology which in this view become sub-disciplines contributing to ecological knowledge.



Agriculture, fisheries, forestry, medicine and urban development are among human activities that would fall within Krebs' explanation of his definition of ecology: «where organisms are found, how many occur t here, and why».

As a scientific discipline, ecology does not dictate what is «right» or «wrong». However, ecological knowledge such as the quantification of biodiversity and population dynamics has provided a scientific basis for expressing the aims of environmentalism and evaluating its goals and policies. Additionally, a holistic view of nature is stressed in both ecology and environmentalism.

Consider the ways an ecologist might approach studying the life of honeybees:

• The behavioral relationship between individuals of a species is behavorial ecology — for example, the study of the queen bee, and how she relates to the worker bees and the drones.

• The organized activity of a species is community ecology; for example, the activity of bees assures the pollination of flowering plants. Bee hives additionally produce honey which is consumed by still other species, such as bears.

• The relationship between the environment and a species is environmental ecology - for example, the consequences of environmental change on bee activity. Bees may die out due to environmental changes (pollinator decline). The environment simultaneously affects and is a consequence of this activity and is thus intertwined with the survival of the species.



&&&

$$$003-001-001$3.3.1.1 Методические указания к практическому занятию №1

{Цель занятия, методические указания к выполнению практического задания, примеры расчетов и задач}


Answer these questions.

1. What does the word ecology come from?

2. Have people always understood the importance of their impact on the nature? Prove your opinion.

3. What does the word environment refer to?

4. Is ecology a science? Why?

5. What does ecology study?

6. Which branches of science is ecology connected with?
...

&&&

$$$003-001-002$3.3.1.2 Задания или тестовые вопросы для самоконтроля к занятию №1

{Задания или тесты (при необходимости указать ключ для выбора варианта)}



Decide whether these statements are true or false (T/F).

1. The Greek philosopher Theophrastus coined the term oikologie defined as the relationship of an animal to both its organic and inorganic environment.

2. By the 1930s nature science had been part of the curriculum of most schools, and organisms were studied in isolation rather than as communities.

3. Ecology is a branch of biology.

4. The environment of an organism constitutes only the other organisms that share its habitat.

5. As a scientific discipline, ecology does not dictate what is «right» or

«wrong».

6. Ecology is the study of how living organisms and their nonliving environment function together.

7. We have not so much impact on our surroundings as they do on us.
...

&&&

$$$003-002-000$3.3.2 Практическое занятие №2

{Тема, план занятия}

Biosphere

For modern ecologists, ecology can be studied at several levels: population level (individuals of the same species), biocoenosis level (or community of species), ecosystem level, and biosphere level.

The outer layer of the planet Earth can be divided into several compartments: the hydrosphere (or sphere of water ), the lithosphere (or sphere of soils and rocks), and the atmosphere (or sphere of the air). The biosphere (or sphere of life), sometimes described as «the fourth envelope*, is all living matter on the planet or that portion of the planet occupied by life. It reaches well into the other three spheres, although there are no permanent inhabitants of the atmosphere. Relative to the volume of the Earth, the biosphere is only the very thin surface layer which extends from 11,000 meters below sea level to 15,000 meters above.

It is thought that life first developed in the hydrosphere, at shallow depths, in the photic zone. Although recently a competing theory has emerged, that life originated around hydrothermal vents in the deeper ocean. Multicellular organisms then appeared and colonized benthic zones. Photosynthetic organisms gradually produced the chemically unstable oxygen-rich atmosphere that characterizes our planet. Terrestrial life developed later, after the ozone layer protecting living beings from UV rays had been formed. Diversification of terrestrial species is thought to be increased by the continents drifting apart, or alternately, colliding. Biodiversity is expressed at the ecological level

(ecosystem), population level (intraspecific diversity), species level (specific diversity), and genetic level. Recently technology has allowed the discovery of the deep ocean vent communities. This remarkable ecological system is not dependent on sunlight but bacteria, utilizing the chemistry of the hot volcanic vents, are at the base of its food chain.

Biosphere

The biosphere contains great quantities of elements such as carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. Other elements, such as phosphorus, calcium, and potassium, are also essential to life, yet are present in smaller amounts. At the ecosystem and biosphere levels, there is a continual recycling of all these elements, which alternate between the mineral and organic states.

While there is a slight input of geothermal energy, the bulk of the functioning of the ecosystem is based on the input of solar energy. Plants and photosynthetic microorganisms convert light into chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis, which creates glucose (a simple sugar) and releases free oxygen. Glucose thus becomes the secondary energy source which drives the ecosystem. Some of this glucose is used directly by other organisms for energy. Other sugar molecules can be converted to other molecules such as amino acids. Plants use some of this sugar, concentrated in nectar to entice pollinators to aid them in reproduction.

Cellular respiration is the process by which organisms (like mammals) break the glucose back down into its constituents, water and carbon dioxide, thus regainnig the stored energy the sun originally gave to the plants. The pro-pi )it ion of photosynthetic activity of plants and other photosynthesizers to the [aspiration of other organisms determines the specific composition of the Earth atmosphere, particularly its oxygen level. Global air currents mix the atmosphere and maintain nearly the same balance of elements in areas of intense biological activity and areas of slight biological activity.

Water is also exchanged between the hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and biosphere in regular cycles. The oceans are large tanks, which store water, ensure thermal and climatic stability, as well as the transport of chemical elements thanks to large oceanic currents.

For a better understanding of how the biosphere works, and various dysfunctions related to human activity, American scientists simulated the biosphere in a small-scale model, called Biosphere II.


...

&&&

$$$003-002-001$3.3.2.1 Методические указания к практическому занятию №2

{Цель занятия, методические указания к выполнению практического задания, примеры расчетов и задач}


Decide whether these statements are true or false (T/F).

1. The biosphere is sphere of soils and rocks.

2. The ozone layer protects living beings from UV rays.

3. The deep ocean vent communities need sunlight for utilizing the chemistry of the hot volcanic vents.

4. At the ecosystem and biosphere levels, there is a continual recycling of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and other elements, such as phosphorus, calcium, and potassium.

5. The process of photosynthesis releases carbon.

6. Glucose and other sugar molecules are concentrated in nectar and entice pollinators to aid plants in reproduction.

7. Water and carbon dioxide are the two constituents which cause the process of cellular respiration.

8. Water cycles between the hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.
...

&&&

$$$003-002-002$3.3.2.2 Задания или тестовые вопросы для самоконтроля к занятию №2

{Задания или тесты (при необходимости указать ключ для выбора варианта)}


Give Russian equivalents of the following expressions:

outer layer; living matter; permanent inhabitants; to extend; photic zone; shallow depths; benthic zone; terrestrial life; to drift apart; vent; amino acids; solar energy; to alternate; cellular respiration; to regain; global air currents; to maintain; mammal; intense biological activity; carbon dioxide; to release; secondary energy source; to entice; phosphoms; input; to reach well into.


...

&&&

$$$003-003-000$3.3.3 Практическое занятие №3

{Тема, план занятия}



Biodiversity

Biodiversity is a word that describes the variety of living things. «Bio» (from a Greek word) refers to living and «diversity» refers to differences and variety. Living organisms express their diversity in hundreds of different ways - both external and visible and internal and invisible.

There are 3 kinds of biodiversity

♦ Variety of genes

Poodles, beagles, and rottweilers are all dogs — but they're not the same because their genes are different. It's the difference in our genes that makes us all different.

♦ Variety among species

Scientists group living things into distinct kinds of species. For example, dogs, dragonflies, and daisies are all different species.

♦ Variety of ecosystems

Coral reefs, wetlands, and tropical rain forests are all ecosystems. Each one is different, with its own unique species living in it. Genes, species, and ecosystems working together make up our planet's biodiversity.

There is genetic diversity within a species, which results in the differences between you and your brothers and sisters and cousins and grandparents even though we all members of the human race — the species Homo Sapiens. Genetic diversity means that an Ethiopian looks different from a Scandinavian or a Japanese person and that inherited diseases run in some families, but not in others. Genetic diversity is the reason why Siamese cats have different body shape and hair colouring from the black and white moggy next door.

There is evolutionary diversity, which has given rise to all the different species of animals and plants on this Earth and is genetic diversity on a wider scale. This is also known as species diversity.

Each species is adapted — and sometimes highly specialised — to survive in a particular environment or range of environments. Only the human species, through cultural and racial diversity and technology, seems to have adapted itself to survive in almost every environment on the Earth.

Ecologists call the role a species plays in its environment a «niche» — like an actor playing the villain, the hero or the comic, in a play. The role may be that of a plant colonizing bare ground, a caterpillar consuming that plant or a wasp preying on the caterpillar. Because there are so many possible niches in all the vast inhabitable areas of the Earth, millions of species have evolved to fill them. Hence the wonderful ecosystem diversity of the planet.

Adaptation by different species to widely separated, but similar types of environments and niches, has led to convergent evolution, where organisms have a similar life style and appearance but are not related. The diversity is there despite superficial similarities.

Lastly, there is cultural diversity, which people will argue is not part of biodiversity. But if you think of it as being the result of evolution and adaptation then it surely is. It applies mostly to us — Homo Sapiens — and is something learned from family, tribal and national groups. Cultural diversity helps the survival process by binding groups together and passing on traditions which help people live in their local environment.

In 1992 the world's government leaders met at a convention in Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil — the country that holds the largest, but fast disappearing, rainforest. The purpose of the convention was to discuss the growing concern, amongst scientists of all nations, about the rapid extinction of the world's non-human fauna and flora, the depletion of the world's resources and the causes and effects of global warming. Various decisions were made, out of which arose the UK's Local Agenda 21 and the Biodiversity Action Plan.

In July 1997, the World's leaders met again, to look at where they had got in terms of reducing the so-called Greenhouse Gases which cause global warming. Not very far, it seems.

How can we study the biodiversity around us? One way is to keep a Nature Diary.

Many of the world's different plants and animals are under severe threat of extinction. Many species are lost already.

A species is said to be extinct when it has not been seen for over 50 years. Dinosaurs became extinct 65 million years ago but, in the last 50 years, more animals and plants have become extinct, because of hunting and loss of habitat. Globally, many hundreds of species will face extinction in a very few years without intensive conservation, education and environmental management and policy-making.

Exotic species are animal and plant species that find themselves outside their native habitat. Scientists have recorded 1,75 million species on our planet and estimate another 5 to 100 million unrecorded species! The educated guess stands at 12.5 million.

These species cause changes to the ecosystem and sometimes destroy other species native to that ecosystem. For example, zebra mussels came from Europe to the Great Lakes of North America in the ballast of ships. They spread like a plague in the waterways of the continent, attaching themselves to existing mussels and killing them. Breeding quickly, they clog up hydro-electric

generators encrust the hulls of boats and erode pipes in water treatment plants.

Living organisms are made up of cells. Scientists have found a way to copy, or clone, the information, or genes found in cells to make new plants and animals. But no one knows if it is totally safe to take genes from one species and add them another. Well-known examples of genetic manipulation include Dolly the sheep — the first cloned mammal, and adding the genes of a toad or a spider to vegetables.




&&&

$$$003-003-001$3.3.3.1 Методические указания к практическому занятию №3

{Цель занятия, методические указания к выполнению практического задания, примеры расчетов и задач}


Answer these questions.

1. What language does the word «biodiversity» come from?

2. How many types of diversity do you know? Explain the difference between them.

3. Can each species adapt itself to survive in almost all environment on Earth? Prove your statement.

4. What does the author compare an ecological niche with? Why?

5. Is cultural diversity a part of biodiversity?

6. What is being done to stop the rapid extinction of the world's non-human fauna and flora?

7. How can you define an extinct species? Give examples.

8. What method of making new plants and animals have you learned from the text?
...

&&&

$$$003-003-002$3.3.3.2 Задания или тестовые вопросы для контроля к занятию №3

{Задания или тесты (при необходимости указать ключ для выбора варианта)}


Give Russian equivalents of the following expressions:

genetic diversity

caterpillar

biodiversity variety rainforest

inherited diseases hair colouring mussel

to consume to prey to reduce

rapid extinction to destroy

plague to estimate

cell toad
...

&&&

$$$003-004-000$3.3.4 Практическое занятие №4

{Тема, план занятия}



Eceological Niche

The concept of the ecological niche is an important one; it helps us to Understand how organisms in an ecosystem interact with each other. The concept is described by Odum as follows:

The ecological niche of an organism depends not only on where it lives but also on what it does. By analogy, it may be said that the habitat is the organism's "address", and the niche is its «profession», biologically speaking.

I lore are a few examples to help you understand what we mean when we (ecologist) use the term «ecologicaI niche»: Oak trees live in oak woodlands; that's common sense. The oak woodland is the habitat. So if Odum was writing a letter to an oak tree he would address the letter to: Sir Deciduous Oak Tree, The Oak Forest, England,

U.K. What do oak trees do? If you can answer that question you know the oak trees «profession» or its ecological niche. Perhaps you think that oak trees just stand there looking pretty and not doing very much, but think about it.

Oak trees:

1) absorb sunlight by photosynthesis;

2) absorb water and mineral salts from the soil;

3) provide shelter for many animals and other plants;

4) act as a support for creeping plants;

5) serve as a source of food for animals;

6) cover the ground with their dead leaves in the autumn.

These six things are the «profession» or ecological niche of the oak tree; you can think of it as being a kind of job description. If the oak trees were cut down or destroyed by fire or storms they would no longer be doing their job and this would have a disastrous effect on all the other organisms living in the same habitat.

Hedgehogs in the garden also have an ecological niche. They rummage about in the flowerbeds eating a variety of insects and other invertebrates which live underneath the dead leaves and twigs in the flowerbeds. That is their profession. They are covered in sharp spines which protect them from predators, so being caught and eaten is not a part of their job description.

However, hedgehogs cannot groom themselves properly. All those spines on their backs make a superb environment or microhabitat for fleas and ticks.

Hedgehogs put nitrogen back into the soil when they urinate! I don't know how much nitrogen they put into the soil but it probably helps the plants if they do. I think that they eat my slugs, so that reduces the effect which slugs have on the flowers.

So the idea of an ecological niche is very simple. You just need to know where the animal or plant lives and what it does.
...
&&&

$$$003-004-001$3.3.4.1 Методические указания к практическому занятию №4

{Цель занятия, методические указания к выполнению практического задания, примеры расчетов и задач}


Prove the importance of the concept of the ecological niche. Illustrate it in some examples:

a) determine the oak trees' habitat and profession;

b) define the ecological niche of hedgehogs.
...

&&&

$$$003-004-002$3.3.4.2 Задания или тестовые вопросы для контроля к занятию №4

{Задания или тесты (при необходимости указать ключ для выбора варианта)}


Give Russian equivalents of the following expressions:

woodlands oak hedgehog

to absorb soil creeping plant

disastrous effect to rummage flowerbed

tick invertebrate twig

to groom sharp spine flea


...

&&&

$$$003-005-000$3.3.5 Практическое занятие №5

{Тема, план занятия}


An Ecosystem Engineer

An ecosystem engineer is an organism that creates, modifies and maintains habitats. Most organisms alter their physical environments in some way, so the term ecosystem engineer is applied only to certain key species that have a profound and wide-ranging influence, changing the distribution and diversity of flora and fauna in their locality. Scientists describe two types of ecosystem engineers.

Autogenic engineers modify the environment using their own physical structures. Trees and corals are two important examples.

Allogenic engineers transform living or non-living material from one form to another using mechanical or other means. The beaver is second only to humans in this capacity.

The beaver engineers its environment in several ways, most obviously by cutting trees and building dams, but the building of lodges and canals is also important.

It is the only species besides humans that is capable of cutting down mature trees. Beaver activity changes the forest structure and diversity of tree species. The animal will use a wide range of trees, but when given a choice will cut its preferred foods, particularly poplar and willow. Willows and maples send up shoots from the cut stumps, but poplars and some other tree species do not. Beavers often clear-cut the areas around their ponds. In other cases, mature trees may become replaced by a dense undergrowth of willow or other shoots. Other tree species become scarce and may be replaced by ones that the beaver does not favour, such as ash. Other timber along the watercourse may be killed by flooding.

In one year a family of six can consume 0.4 hectares (1 acre) of poplar trees, and is estimated to fell one metric ton of wood. If the family exhausts its food source, it will move to anew location.

The tree-cutting alters forest succession. If the beaver creates forest opening sun-loving plants may take hold, converting a mature forest to an early succussional stand. Sometimes, however, the beaver hastens forest maturity by selecting willows and poplars, which are early succession trees, allowing the repid development of understory saplings such as fir and spruce.

Dam-building changes the flow of water through the stream. Beaver require deep slow-moving water for storing food, constructing lodges and moving around safely. This is why they build dams. The still water in a beaver pond

attracts species normally associated with lakes rather than streams, while

species dependent on fast water die out or move elsewhere.
...

&&&

$$$003-005-001$3.3.5.1 Методические указания к практическому занятию №5

{Цель занятия, методические указания к выполнению практического задания, примеры расчетов и задач}



Give Russian equivalents of the following expressions:

to с reate to modify to maintain

profound wide-ranging influence autogenic

allogenic most obviously coral

lod|ge poplar willow

mature tree stump undergrowth

timber to hasten rapid development

understory sapling spruce

pond to store food stream
...

&&&

$$$003-005-002$3.3.5.2 Задания или тестовые вопросы для контроля к занятию №5

{Задания или тесты (при необходимости указать ключ для выбора варианта)}



Find synonyms of these expressions among the words and word combinations in the previous exercise.

1) pool, lake;

2) wood;

3) base, remnant of a tree;

4) to change, transform;

5) brushwood, bushes, undergrowth;

6) small house;

7) to speed up, to rush, to hurry;

8) extensive, comprehensive, all-embracing effect or impact;

9) to make, produce, generate;

10) deep, insightful;

11) to stock up, amass, save;

12) plantlet, sprout, seedling;

13) fully grown tree;

14) quick, fast progress;

15) fur tree;

16) to preserve, uphold, keep up.
...

&&&


страница 1 страница 2 страница 3 страница 4 страница 5


Смотрите также:





<< предыдущая страница         следующая страница >>

скачать файл




 



 

 
 

 

 
   E-mail:
   © zaeto.ru, 2019