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Give Russian equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

1. air, 2. food, 3. energy; 4. ecological environment, 5.habitat area, 6.natural environment, 7.surrounding nature,


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$$$003-011-000$3.3.11 Практическое занятие №11

{Тема, план занятия}



Environmental factors and their classification

Abiotic factors (physical and chemical factors of inorganic nature) are temperature, light, radiation, pressure, humidity, salt composition of water, wind, currents, landscape, all these are properties of inorganic nature, which directly or indirectly impact on living organisms.

Biotic (factors of organic nature) - are forms of exposure of living beings to each other. Each organism constantly undergoes direct or indirect influence of other beings, comes into contact with members of its own species and other species - plants, animals, micro-organisms, depends on them and its turn, impacts them.

Anthropogenic factors - forms of the human society activities that change nature as the habitat of other species, or directly influence their living. The scope of human impact on the organic life of the Earth is continuing to grow.

Changes of environmental factors over time can be: 1) regular and periodic - changing the force of impact depending on time of day or season of the year, or rhythm of tides in the ocean, 2) not regular, with no clear frequency, for example, changes in weather conditions in different years, catastrophic events - storms, heavy rains, landslides, etc., and so on; 3) directed during well-known, sometimes lengthy, periods of time, such as during weather cooling or climate warming, overgrowing of ponds, permanent grazing of cattle in the same area, etc. 4) changes of unspecified action - man-made factors, the most dangerous to living organisms and their communities, such as emissions of pollutants. The nature of these factors is uncertain. Usually an organism is not ready to them, the species haven't met with such phenomena. In the process of evolution these factors present a great difficulty for adaption.  This is their main specificity and ecological unfriendliness. Besides, many of these factors can be harmful. They belong to the group of xenobiotics (Greek xenox - strange). The latter include practically all contaminants. Only in a few cases, with respect to such factors, organisms can use mechanisms of so called preadaptations, that is, adaptations which worked out to other factors. For example, resistance of plants to air pollution in some way is contributed by the structures that are favorable for improving drought resistance: heavy ground leaf tissues, availability of vegetable wax, pubescence, fewer stomata and other structures slowing the absorption of substances and, consequently, poisoning of the organism.

Among the environmental factors we can distinguish between resources and conditions. Environmental resources are used and consumed by organisms, thus, reducing their number. These resources include food, water at its deficit, shelters, comfortable places for breeding, etc. Conditions - these are factors to which the organism can adapt, but can not influence on them. The same environmental factor may be a resource for one species and can be a condition for other species.  For example, light - is a necessary energy resource for plants and animals, and for animals with eyesight - is a condition of visual orientation. Water for many organisms can be both a condition of life and a resource.

Any organism adapts to the environment by adjusting its living activity. These adjustments are called adaptations. Adaptation means any change in the structure and functions of organisms, increasing their chances of survival.

The ability to adapt -is a fundamental property of life in general, as it provides the very possibility of existence, ability of organisms to survive and to breed. Adaptations emerge and develop in the course of evolution.

The basic mechanisms of adaptation at the level of the organism are: 1) biochemical - occur in intracellular processes, such as change of the enzymes, or change in their number, 2) physiological - For example, intensification of sweating of some species when the temperature rises, 3) morphological and anatomical - features of body shape and structure relating to habits of life, 4) behavioral - for example, animals search for favorable habitats, create burrows, nests, etc., 5) ontogenetic - Speeding up or slowing down the development of an individual organism leading to survival when conditions change.


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$$$003-011-001$3.3.11.1 Методические указания к практическому занятию №11

{Цель занятия, методические указания к выполнению практического задания, примеры расчетов и задач}

Answer the questions:


  1. What is the basic mechanisms of adaptation?

  2. Which are the levels of the organism do you know?

  3. When do the adaptations develop?

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$$$003-011-002$3.3.11.2 Задания или тестовые вопросы для контроля к занятию №11

{Задания или тесты (при необходимости указать ключ для выбора варианта)}



Give Russian equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

1. resources; 2.conditions; 3.Environment; 4. temperature, 5. light, 6. radiation, 7. pressure, 8. humidity, 9. salt composition of water, 10. wind, 11. currents, 12. landscape, 13.properties, 14. вiotic factors, 15. plants, 16. animals, 17. micro-organisms, 18. аnthropogenic factors, 19. human society activities, 20. Xenobiotics, 21. preadaptations, 22. Adaptations.


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$$$003-012-000$3.3.12 Практическое занятие №12

{Тема, план занятия}



Liebig's law of minimum.V. Shelford's law of tolerance
Despite a wide variety of environmental factors, there are a number of common things in the character of their impact on organisms and in response of living beings.

The law of optimum. Each factor has its limits of positive effect on organisms (Figure 1). The result of the variable factor depends primarily on the strength of its manifestation. Both insufficient, and redundant impact of the factor negatively affects the vital activity of living organisms. The favorable impact is called a zone of optimum of the environmental factor or simply an optimum for organisms of the given species. The greater the deviation from the optimum is, the more negatively this factor effects organisms (zone of pessimum). Maximum and minimum values ​​of the factor - are critical points beyond which the existence is no longer possible, and death occurs. Conditions when one or several factors come close to critical points are called extreme. Limits of endurance between the critical points are called ecological valence of living organisms in relation to a particular environmental factor. Ecological valence - is a property of species to adapt to a particular range of environmental factors.

Wide ecological valence of species with respect to environmental factors is marked by a prefix of ''eury' to the factor.  Eurythermic species - enduring large fluctuations in temperature, eurybathic - enduring wide range of pressure, euryhaline - enduring different salinity levels of the environment.

Inability to endure large fluctuations of the factor, or narrow ecological valence, is characterized by the prefix "steno" - stenothermal, stenobathic, stenohaline types, etc.

Species, the existence of which is strictly conditioned by certain environmental conditions, are called stenobiontic (environmentally non-plastic, highly specialized, not endurable), and those that are able to adapt to different environmental conditions - eurybiontic (more endurable, highly specialized).

"Growth and development of organisms depend primarily on those environmental factors, the value of which is close to the ecological minimum" - Liebig's law of minimum (1873). It follows from the law that:

a) endurance of organisms is determined by the weakest link in the chain of its environmental requirements;

b) all circumstances necessary to maintain life, are equal (the law of equivalence of living conditions), any factor can limit the possibility of existence of the organism.

The law of minimum is closely connected with the law of limiting factors, or F. Blekhman's law (1909): environmental factors that have maximum values in particular conditions, especially hinder (limit) species abilities to survive in these conditions. In other words, a factor which is in shortage or excess (near critical points) negatively affects organisms and also limits the manifestation of other factors, which can be at their optimum.

These laws are supplemented by V. Shelford's Law of Tolerance (1913): a limiting factor for existence of an organism can be both a minimum and maximum of the environmental impact, and the range between them determines the scope of resistance to this factor.

The greater is the deviation from the optimum, the more suppressive is this factor for the organism. Both insufficient, and redundant effect of the factor negatively affects living of organisms.

Any natural systems can develop only through the use of material, energy and information capacities of the environment. Isolated development is impossible. Development of nature is subject to certain laws.

Ecological environmental factors have various impacts on living organisms, that is, can affect as irritators causing adaptive changes in physiological and biochemical functions, as delimiters that make it impossible to exist in these conditions, as modifiers, causing morphological and anatomical changes in organisms; as signals indicating changes in other environmental factors.

Let's consider ecological importance of certain factors.
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$$$003-012-001$3.3.12.1 Методические указания к практическому занятию №12

{Цель занятия, методические указания к выполнению практического задания, примеры расчетов и задач}

Questions for self-control

Into what groups can we classify the environmental factors?

What factors are called abiotic factors of the environment?

What environmental factors are biotic?

Which factor is called edaphic?
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$$$003-012-002$3.3.12.2 Задания или тестовые вопросы для контроля к занятию №12

{Задания или тесты (при необходимости указать ключ для выбора варианта)}



Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and expressions. Translate the sentences which contain them.

1) эвритермные организмы; 2) стенотермные 3) закон минимума Либиха; 4) зона пессимума; 5) экологическая валентность.


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$$$003-013-000$3.3.13 Практическое занятие №13

{Тема, план занятия}



Ecology of populations - demecology

Think of what species is.  Species - is a group of organisms that are similar in morphology. Any type of animal, plant, microorganism establishes itself in the environment, masters the arena of life, adapts to the constantly changing conditions, not as a group of individuals, but as a whole, which is the population.



In ecology a population is called a group of individuals of the same species which interact with each other and share a common living area.

The word "population" comes from the Latin "Populus" - people, population. Thus, ecological population can be determined as the population of one species in a particular area.

Populations as group associations have a number of specific properties that are not inherent to each single individual. Members of one population have no less impact on each other than physical factors of the environment, or other types of organisms living together. To some extent, all forms of communications which are specific for interspecies relationships show up in populations, but most common are mutually beneficial and competitive relations. Specific intra-species relations - this is relationship associated with reproduction: between individuals of different sexes and between parent and child generations.

General changes in population size are formed by four phenomena, birth, death, moving in and out of individuals (migration).



Birth rate - the number of new individuals appearing per unit of time as a result of breeding. Fertility depends on the ratio of the breeding season, and overall length of life, as well as the fertility of individuals.  Average fertility of each species is defined historically as a mechanism allowing for recovery of the loss of populations, in favorable conditions fertility is usually low, and in unfavorable conditions is high.   The nature of fertility depends on the rate of sexual maturation and the ratio of males and females in the population, the number of generations per season, on the degree of parental care or provision of eggs with nutrition.  Species which nurse and guard their offspring have a very low fertility.  High fertility is usual for species with high mortality, especially when they are pressured by predators.

Population size and density depend not only on fertility but also on the population mortality. Mortality is the number of individuals who died in the given period. Mortality varies depending on the genetic and physiological usefulness of animals, environmental conditions, age, state of the population, and is expressed as % to initial or average population size.

Population dynamics is greatly influenced by the migration of individuals, that is, exchange of populations. Going of individuals out of the population or its replenishment by strangers (immigration) - is a phenomenon that is based on one of the most important features - its expansive ability. Balanced intensity of fertility and mortality (1-1) forms a stable population in which mortality is compensated by the growth, and its size and habitat are maintained at the same level. However, in nature there are virtually no stable populations, as there is no permanently stable state of the environment and relations within the population. More often it is observed an excess of births over deaths and populations grow up to such an extent that an outbreak of mass reproduction can occur which is especially true for small animals. These populations are called growing.

When population develops excessively, its living conditions worsen, and overcrowding of the population occurs, reserves of food and energy decrease. This leads to a sharp increase in mortality as a result the population begins to shrink. If the death rate exceeds the birth rate, the population is declining. But it can't shrink endlessly.  Under certain conditions, mortality begins to fall, and the fertility increases, and gradually a population transforms into a stable population.

In nature, the population size is regulated by immigration and emigration - this process is called dispersion of the population. Expansive dispersion is a means of communication between populations. It increases with increasing density of the population, and during the depression in size, by contrast, the flow of strangers into the population grows. For example, it is known that residential animals with distinct territorial instincts, show low aggressive behavior towards strangers in a period of low population and invaders occupy vacant lands.

Often, the excessive increase of population density causes cannibalism.

During emigration, penetration of dispersing individuals to unoccupied by the species territory, their population and forming of new populations is called invasion.

Each population is characterized by the age structure, and the ratio of age groups characterizes the ability of a population to reproduce. In population there are individuals of different age, and among these are individuals of different sex. The duration of life and time of sexual maturation is not the same for different species.

Growth in the number and density of the population of any species in nature cannot be endless. Sooner or later population is faced with limitations. These limitations are resources thanks to which species exist: food, shelter, breeding sites. They do not allow the population to expand further. These limits are called the environmental capacity for specific populations. For example, spruce forest is more capacious environment for squirrel than the mixed forest, as the main food for squirrel is seeds of conifers.

...


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$$$003-013-001$3.3.13.1 Методические указания к практическому занятию №13

{Цель занятия, методические указания к выполнению практического задания, примеры расчетов и задач}

Questions for self-control

 

1.       What determines the size and density of the population?



2.       How does a population adjust its size?

3.       What is the effect of living in groups?

4.        What is polymorphism of the population?

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$$$003-013-002$3.3.13.2 Задания или тестовые вопросы для контроля к занятию №13

{Задания или тесты (при необходимости указать ключ для выбора варианта)}



Find word combinations in the previous exercise and explain about it.

  1. environmental capacity

  2. birth, death, moving in and out of individuals (migration).

  3. Specific intra-species relations


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$$$003-014-000$3.3.14 Практическое занятие №14

{Тема, план занятия}



Population structure

Population is characterized by a certain organization. Distribution of individuals in territory, relations of groups in gender, age, morphological, physiological, behavioral, and genetic characteristics reflect the structure of population. Population structure is formed on the one hand, on the basis of common biological properties of the species, on the other hand - under the influence of abiotic environmental factors and populations of other species. Population structure has, therefore, an adaptive character. Different populations of the same species possess as similar characteristics of the structure, as distinctive ones characterizing specific environmental conditions of their habitats.

Each population has quantitative characteristics that solve problems of a qualitative nature. There are two groups of quantitative indicators - statistical and dynamical.

Statistical indicators describe the state of the population at a given time. Statistical indicators include size of the population, density and performance structure.

Size of the population - the total number of individuals in the given area or in a given volume. Population size is never constant, and depends on birth and death ratio.

Density is determined by the number of individuals or biomass per unit of area or volume. Density is also variable, depending on the population size. With the population increasing, its density doesn't increase only if the population can expand its areal. Expansion can continue for as long as the population does not meet any obstacle.  We distinguish an accidentally even or group expansion.

Accidental expansion takes place only in a homogeneous environment, such as expansion of aphids in the field, but with the growth of reproduction the type of expansion can become group or spotty.

The most common is group expansion and it may be accidental. The group expansion provides for the highest resistance of the population to adverse conditions in comparison with an individual organism. Intensive expansion leads to rapid mixing of populations, blurs the boundaries between them. For example, highly mobile animals or birds have vast areals without sharp boundaries between populations. And as for slow-moving or passively moving animals, the boundaries of their populations are clearly distinguished, even in small areas.

Population density depends on the size of living organisms, the larger is an animal, the greater is the area they occupy, the lower population density, and vice versa.

Population size and density can also depend on other factors both biotic and abiotic: for example, the destruction of prey by predators, impact of parasites on life of hosts, cold winters and dry summers, etc. However, fluctuations in numbers are not unlimited. Population as any biological system has the ability to self-regulate. Maintaining optimal size of the population under these conditions is called homeostasis.

Any population is theoretically capable of unlimited growth, if it's not limited by factors of the environment. In this hypothetical case, the rate of population growth will depend on the biological potential specific to species. The concept of biological potential was introduced in ecology in 1928 by R. Chapman. This figure reflects the theoretical maximum of offsprings from a single pair (or one individual) per a unit of time, for example, for a year or the entire life cycle.


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$$$003-014-001$3.3.14.1 Методические указания к практическому занятию №14

{Цель занятия, методические указания к выполнению практического задания, примеры расчетов и задач}



  1. What from does the population density depend?

  2. What is the maintaining optimal size?

  3. What is the biological potential?

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$$$003-014-002$3.3.14.2 Задания или тестовые вопросы для контроля к занятию №14

{Задания или тесты (при необходимости указать ключ для выбора варианта)}



Give Russian equivalents of the following expressions:

1.territory, 2.relations of groups in gender, 3. age, 4. morphological, physiological, behavioral, and genetic characteristics 5. Statistical indicators


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$$$003-015-000$3.3.15 Практическое занятие №15

{Тема, план занятия}



The concept of monitoring and its elements

Environmental monitoring is a comprehensive system of monitoring the state of the environment, and the assessment and forecast of environmental changes under the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors.

Environmental monitoring should be distinguished from environmental control. Environmental control is a system of measures aimed at prevention, detection and suppression of violations of environmental laws, ensuring compliance of business entities and other agents with all requirements including standards and regulations for protection of the environment.

The term "monitoring" was officially introduced to science at the Stockholm UN Conference on the Environment in 1972. After two years in the Kenyan capital of  Nairobi the first governmental meeting on monitoring took place. The meeting decided to give priority to monitoring of environmental pollution at three levels - local, regional and global. Since 1974, the term "monitoring" was introduced into Russian literature by Yu. A. Izrael. From the beginning, in the interpretation of monitoring there are two points of view.

Many foreign researchers proposed to implement a system of continuous observation of one or more environmental elements with a determined purpose and under a specially developed program. Another view was expressed by Yu. A. Izrael. Under monitoring he offered to understand only a comprehensive system of supervision, assessment and forecasting that studies only individual changes of the condition of biosphere, occurring only under the influence of human activities (ie, monitoring of anthropogenic changes).

Alternative concept was proposed in 1975 by I. P. Gerasimov. He also attached to monitoring the control functions. But it was not appropriate because usually governmental and local authorities have control functions.  That's why the concept offered by Yuriy Izrael became more used in everyday life.

According to all concepts, objects of monitoring are ecosystems under the influence of anthropogenic factors. Ecosystems not subject to anthropogenic influences are also of interest. They are a point of reference or a standard for comparison with ecosystems modified by human activity.

The most important part of environmental monitoring is monitoring of anthropogenic pollution. It is in the center of attention.

The main purpose of monitoring is monitoring of the state of the environment and the level of pollution, as well as information support of environmental management and environmental safety. The impact of human activity must also be timely assessed.  Monitoring is not only observation and evaluation of factors, but experimental modeling, forecasting and recommendations for environmental management. Thus, the purpose of monitoring is summarized to the following:

- Monitoring of the state of the environment;

- Forecasting on the environment;

              - Delivery of information to appropriate services and agencies.

              Monitoring tasks:

              - Organization of systematic observations of changes in the biosphere;

              - Evaluation of the observed changes, identification of anthropogenic effects;

              - forecasting and determining trends in changes in the biosphere.


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$$$003-015-001$3.3.15.1 Методические указания к практическому занятию №15

{Цель занятия, методические указания к выполнению практического задания, примеры расчетов и задач}

Questions for self-control

 

1. The concept of monitoring and its elements



2. What is the difference between monitoring of the environment and control?

3.  Classification of monitoring systems

4. What is the objective of monitoring?

5. Main tasks of monitoring


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$$$003-015-002$3.3.15.2 Задания или тестовые вопросы контроля к занятию №15

{Задания или тесты (при необходимости указать ключ для выбора варианта)}

Explain this figure 1. Block diagram of the monitoring system.

According to the system proposed by Yury Izrael, monitoring structure consists of four parts: observation, evaluation of the actual condition, condition forecast and assessment of the projected state (Fig.1).

 

                      



Information system (monitoring) [ Management

Observations - Evaluation of the actual condition ] Regulation of the quality of the environment

Condition forecast - Assessment of the projected state

Direct communication – Feedback


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$$$004-000-000$3.4 Лабораторный практикум
Не предусмотрено по учебному плану.

...


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$$$006-000-000$3.6 Курсовая работа
Не предусмотрено по учебному плану.

...


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$$$006-001-000$3.6.1 Методические указания

...


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$$$006-001-001$3.6.2 Темы курсовых работ

{Список с указанием ключа для выбора темы}

Не предусмотрено по учебному плану.

...


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$$$007-000-000$3.7 Блок контроля знаний

...


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$$$007-001-000$3.7.1 Задание по 1-модулю

{Методические указания к выполнению, задание}



Exercise I

Give Russian equivalents of the following expressions:

one of the major problems; to subdue nature; to come in contact; nucleic acids; therefore; to define; descriptive studies of plants; to have impact on; observations; abuse of chemicals; to destroy wildlife; cell; to harm the human environment; pedology; to raise public interest in; distribution and abundance of living organisms; to inhabit; abiotic; solar insolation; drones; pollination; to consume; habitat; consequences of environmental change; to intertwine; survival; to be worried about something.


Exercise II

Translate the given words and word combinations into English:

глобальное потепление живая материя

физические свойства приманивать

почвоведение углекислый газ

освещение лучами солнца (инсоляция) глюкоза

трутень калий

покорять природу воздушный поток

распределение организмов относительно размера земли

последствия изменений выделять

быть обеспокоенным чем-либо многоклеточный

нуклеиновая кислота обеспечивать стабильность


Exercise III

Place these sentences in the correct order by referring to the information in the text.

1. Evolutionary diversity has given rise to all the different species of

2. Because there are so many possible niches in all the vast inhabitable areas of the Earth, millions of species have evolved to fill them.

3. Living organisms express their diversity in hundreds of different ways — both external or visible and internal or invisible.



4. Many of the world's different plants and animals are under severe threat of extinction.

5. Cultural diversity helps the survival process by binding groups together and passing on traditions which help people live in their local environment.


Exercise IV

Give the author's definition of the ecological niche. Mention the comparison of the author and your opinion on the reasons.


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$$$007-001-001$3.7.2 Задание по 2-модулю

{Методические указания к выполнению, задание}



Exercise I

Answer these questions.

1. What organisms can be classified as ecosystem engineers?

2. How many types of ecosystem engineers exist? Characterize each one.

3. What type of ecosystem engineers does the beaver refer to? Why?

4. What foods are its preferred ones? What does this preference lead to?

5. How many trees can a family of six can consume in one year?

6.How does dam-building change the flow of water through the stream?


Exercise II

Translate the given phrases into English.

количество осадков третичный консумент

использованная теплота. пруд, искусственныйводоем

луг хищничество

грибки (грибок) морская водоросль

проточная вода взаимодействовать

пищевая цепь разложение, гниение

стоячая вода понятие, концепция

предпочитать измерять устойчивость экосистемы

состояние окружающей среды паразитизм


Exercise III

Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and expressions. Translate the sentences which contain them.

1)морской; 2)производство сырых материалов; 3)пресноводный; 4)хлор; 5)обитающий на дне (бентический); 6)прилив и отлив (на море и океане) 7)коралловые рифы; 8)сода; 9) нероциональное использование морских ресурсов; 10) чрезмерный промысел (перелов); 11) отдаленный от берега; 12) прибережный; 13) органические отложения; 14) область водосбора; 15) растворенный кислород; 16) растительный покров; 17) сосудистое растение; 18) болото, трясина; 19) осока; 20) солёность; 21) эвригалинный (выносящий различную солёность); 22) скорость, быстрота; 23) зарастание водоема


Exercise IV

Give Russian equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

to argue mining to reject

logging recent to take into account

equilibrium perception to reject

controversial ensemble advocacy

on a worldwide scale objective mutuall relationship



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$$$007-001-002$3.7.3 Задание по 3-модулю

{Методические указания к выполнению, задание}



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